Its worth mentioning that LabVIEW should do this for you, its called loop invariant code motion, so don't worry about it for performance reasons.You should put the code wherever its more readable.
In this case, I'd argue the most readable form is leaving the math where it is, but moving the source values (array size, iteration terminal, control) closer in. I'd also say use a local variable for the control -- the downside to this is that, in fact, using a local variable will stop the loop invariant code motion from happening 😕
In this particular case, I'd like to mention that you can make code more readable through various means -- one is code movement, another is labelling wires or using self-labelled elements like clusters. You can also add comments, but before you go adding comments I would always always look at the code and see if it can be changed to use a different tool to make the meaning more self-evident. To stick with the current section of code: personally, I find pretty much all iteration-based math to be incomprehensible. I sat here for like a full minute trying to figure out why on earth you were taking max(0, i-10) ...but stepping back for a second, it looks like it should probably just be a case structure with two cases, "..10" and "11..". There is always a case structure in this code, but in your version its hidden inside the max() function and if you use a case structure its explicit. Then you have the problem of "why 10?", but at least anyone reading the code is not stuck back at "why maximum?".
Along these lines, one thing that might really help you is if you find yourself a buddy and try to explain the code to them (bit by bit, i mean, definitely not all at once). As logman said the application isn't really all that complicated, and I would bet that anyone with a semi-softwarish or logical background could follow along if you walked them through it. The purpose would be to rethink code like the above. If you're sitting there explaining to another human being "well I want the index of this listbox to be 0 up until iteration 10 and then I want it to start incrementing by 1, so what I did is I took the maximum of 0 and the iteration terminal and then built that into an array with 0 and used that as the index" you might start thinking to yourself "man I really need to make this easier to follow".